http.cookiejar —— HTTP 客户端的 Cookie 处理

源代码: Lib/http/

http.cookiejar 模块定义了用于自动处理 HTTP cookie 的类。这对访问需要小段数据 —— cookies 的网站很有用,这些数据由 Web 服务器的 HTTP 响应在客户端计算机上设置,然后在以后的 HTTP 请求中返回给服务器。

常规的 Netscape Cookie 协议和 RFC 2965 定义的协议都可以处理。RFC 2965 处理默认情况下处于关闭状态。 RFC 2109 cookie 被解析为 Netscape cookie,随后根据有效的 'policy' 被视为 Netscape 或 RFC 2965 cookie。 请注意,Internet 上的大多数 cookie 是 Netscape cookie。 http.cookiejar 尝试遵循事实上的 Netscape cookie 协议(与原始 Netscape 规范中所设定的协议大不相同),包括注意 max-ageport RFC 2965 引入的 cookie 属性。


Set-CookieSet-Cookie2 头中找到的各种命名参数通常指 attributes。为了不与 Python 属性相混淆,模块文档使用 cookie-attribute 代替。


exception http.cookiejar.LoadError

FileCookieJar 实例在从文件加载 cookies 出错时抛出这个异常。 LoadErrorOSError 的一个子类。

在 3.3 版更改: LoadError 成为 OSError 的子类而不是 IOError


class http.cookiejar.CookieJar(policy=None)

policy 是实现了 CookiePolicy 接口的一个对象。

CookieJar 类储存 HTTP cookies。它从 HTTP 请求提取 cookies,并在 HTTP 响应中返回它们。 CookieJar 实例在必要时自动处理包含 cookie 的到期情况。子类还负责储存和从文件或数据库中查找 cookies。

class http.cookiejar.FileCookieJar(filename, delayload=None, policy=None)

policy 是实现了 CookiePolicy 接口的一个对象。对于其他参数,参考相应属性的文档。

一个可以从硬盘中文件加载或保存 cookie 的 CookieJar。 Cookies 会在 load()revert() 方法调用前从命名的文件中加载。子类的文档位于段落 FileCookieJar subclasses and co-operation with web browsers

在 3.8 版更改: 文件名形参支持 path-like object

class http.cookiejar.CookiePolicy

此类负责确定是否应从服务器接受每个 cookie 或将其返回给服务器。

class http.cookiejar.DefaultCookiePolicy(blocked_domains=None, allowed_domains=None, netscape=True, rfc2965=False, rfc2109_as_netscape=None, hide_cookie2=False, strict_domain=False, strict_rfc2965_unverifiable=True, strict_ns_unverifiable=False, strict_ns_domain=DefaultCookiePolicy.DomainLiberal, strict_ns_set_initial_dollar=False, strict_ns_set_path=False, secure_protocols='https', 'wss')

构造参数只能以关键字参数传递,blocked_domains 是一个我们既不会接受也不会返回 cookie 的域名序列。allowed_domains 如果不是 None,则是仅有的我们会接受或返回的域名序列。secure_protocols 是可以添加安全 cookies 的协议序列。默认将 httpswss (安全 WebSocket)考虑为安全协议。对于其他参数,参考 CookiePolicyDefaultCookiePolicy 对象的文档。

DefaultCookiePolicy implements the standard accept / reject rules for Netscape and RFC 2965 cookies. By default, RFC 2109 cookies (ie. cookies received in a Set-Cookie header with a version cookie-attribute of 1) are treated according to the RFC 2965 rules. However, if RFC 2965 handling is turned off or rfc2109_as_netscape is True, RFC 2109 cookies are 'downgraded' by the CookieJar instance to Netscape cookies, by setting the version attribute of the Cookie instance to 0. DefaultCookiePolicy also provides some parameters to allow some fine-tuning of policy.

class http.cookiejar.Cookie

This class represents Netscape, RFC 2109 and RFC 2965 cookies. It is not expected that users of http.cookiejar construct their own Cookie instances. Instead, if necessary, call make_cookies() on a CookieJar instance.


Module urllib.request

URL opening with automatic cookie handling.

Module http.cookies

HTTP cookie classes, principally useful for server-side code. The http.cookiejar and http.cookies modules do not depend on each other.

The specification of the original Netscape cookie protocol. Though this is still the dominant protocol, the 'Netscape cookie protocol' implemented by all the major browsers (and http.cookiejar) only bears a passing resemblance to the one sketched out in cookie_spec.html.

RFC 2109 - HTTP State Management Mechanism

Obsoleted by RFC 2965. Uses Set-Cookie with version=1.

RFC 2965 - HTTP State Management Mechanism

The Netscape protocol with the bugs fixed. Uses Set-Cookie2 in place of Set-Cookie. Not widely used.

Unfinished errata to RFC 2965.

RFC 2964 - Use of HTTP State Management

CookieJar 和 FileCookieJar 对象

CookieJar objects support the iterator protocol for iterating over contained Cookie objects.

CookieJar has the following methods:

Add correct Cookie header to request.

If policy allows (ie. the rfc2965 and hide_cookie2 attributes of the CookieJar's CookiePolicy instance are true and false respectively), the Cookie2 header is also added when appropriate.

The request object (usually a urllib.request.Request instance) must support the methods get_full_url(), get_host(), get_type(), unverifiable(), has_header(), get_header(), header_items(), add_unredirected_header() and origin_req_host attribute as documented by urllib.request.

在 3.3 版更改: request object needs origin_req_host attribute. Dependency on a deprecated method get_origin_req_host() has been removed.

CookieJar.extract_cookies(response, request)

Extract cookies from HTTP response and store them in the CookieJar, where allowed by policy.

The CookieJar will look for allowable Set-Cookie and Set-Cookie2 headers in the response argument, and store cookies as appropriate (subject to the CookiePolicy.set_ok() method's approval).

The response object (usually the result of a call to urllib.request.urlopen(), or similar) should support an info() method, which returns an email.message.Message instance.

The request object (usually a urllib.request.Request instance) must support the methods get_full_url(), get_host(), unverifiable(), and origin_req_host attribute, as documented by urllib.request. The request is used to set default values for cookie-attributes as well as for checking that the cookie is allowed to be set.

在 3.3 版更改: request object needs origin_req_host attribute. Dependency on a deprecated method get_origin_req_host() has been removed.


Set the CookiePolicy instance to be used.

CookieJar.make_cookies(response, request)

Return sequence of Cookie objects extracted from response object.

See the documentation for extract_cookies() for the interfaces required of the response and request arguments.

Set a Cookie if policy says it's OK to do so.

Set a Cookie, without checking with policy to see whether or not it should be set.

CookieJar.clear([domain[, path[, name]]])

Clear some cookies.

If invoked without arguments, clear all cookies. If given a single argument, only cookies belonging to that domain will be removed. If given two arguments, cookies belonging to the specified domain and URL path are removed. If given three arguments, then the cookie with the specified domain, path and name is removed.

Raises KeyError if no matching cookie exists.


Discard all session cookies.

Discards all contained cookies that have a true discard attribute (usually because they had either no max-age or expires cookie-attribute, or an explicit discard cookie-attribute). For interactive browsers, the end of a session usually corresponds to closing the browser window.

Note that the save() method won't save session cookies anyway, unless you ask otherwise by passing a true ignore_discard argument.

FileCookieJar implements the following additional methods:, ignore_discard=False, ignore_expires=False)

Save cookies to a file.

This base class raises NotImplementedError. Subclasses may leave this method unimplemented.

filename is the name of file in which to save cookies. If filename is not specified, self.filename is used (whose default is the value passed to the constructor, if any); if self.filename is None, ValueError is raised.

ignore_discard: save even cookies set to be discarded. ignore_expires: save even cookies that have expired

The file is overwritten if it already exists, thus wiping all the cookies it contains. Saved cookies can be restored later using the load() or revert() methods.

FileCookieJar.load(filename=None, ignore_discard=False, ignore_expires=False)

Load cookies from a file.

Old cookies are kept unless overwritten by newly loaded ones.

Arguments are as for save().

The named file must be in the format understood by the class, or LoadError will be raised. Also, OSError may be raised, for example if the file does not exist.

在 3.3 版更改: 过去触发的 IOError,现在是 OSError 的别名。

FileCookieJar.revert(filename=None, ignore_discard=False, ignore_expires=False)

Clear all cookies and reload cookies from a saved file.

revert() can raise the same exceptions as load(). If there is a failure, the object's state will not be altered.

FileCookieJar instances have the following public attributes:


Filename of default file in which to keep cookies. This attribute may be assigned to.


If true, load cookies lazily from disk. This attribute should not be assigned to. This is only a hint, since this only affects performance, not behaviour (unless the cookies on disk are changing). A CookieJar object may ignore it. None of the FileCookieJar classes included in the standard library lazily loads cookies.

FileCookieJar subclasses and co-operation with web browsers

The following CookieJar subclasses are provided for reading and writing.

class http.cookiejar.MozillaCookieJar(filename, delayload=None, policy=None)

A FileCookieJar that can load from and save cookies to disk in the Mozilla cookies.txt file format (which is also used by the Lynx and Netscape browsers).


This loses information about RFC 2965 cookies, and also about newer or non-standard cookie-attributes such as port.


Back up your cookies before saving if you have cookies whose loss / corruption would be inconvenient (there are some subtleties which may lead to slight changes in the file over a load / save round-trip).

Also note that cookies saved while Mozilla is running will get clobbered by Mozilla.

class http.cookiejar.LWPCookieJar(filename, delayload=None, policy=None)

A FileCookieJar that can load from and save cookies to disk in format compatible with the libwww-perl library's Set-Cookie3 file format. This is convenient if you want to store cookies in a human-readable file.

在 3.8 版更改: 文件名形参支持 path-like object

CookiePolicy 对象

Objects implementing the CookiePolicy interface have the following methods:

CookiePolicy.set_ok(cookie, request)

Return boolean value indicating whether cookie should be accepted from server.

cookie is a Cookie instance. request is an object implementing the interface defined by the documentation for CookieJar.extract_cookies().

CookiePolicy.return_ok(cookie, request)

Return boolean value indicating whether cookie should be returned to server.

cookie is a Cookie instance. request is an object implementing the interface defined by the documentation for CookieJar.add_cookie_header().

CookiePolicy.domain_return_ok(domain, request)

Return False if cookies should not be returned, given cookie domain.

This method is an optimization. It removes the need for checking every cookie with a particular domain (which might involve reading many files). Returning true from domain_return_ok() and path_return_ok() leaves all the work to return_ok().

If domain_return_ok() returns true for the cookie domain, path_return_ok() is called for the cookie path. Otherwise, path_return_ok() and return_ok() are never called for that cookie domain. If path_return_ok() returns true, return_ok() is called with the Cookie object itself for a full check. Otherwise, return_ok() is never called for that cookie path.

Note that domain_return_ok() is called for every cookie domain, not just for the request domain. For example, the function might be called with both "" and "" if the request domain is "". The same goes for path_return_ok().

The request argument is as documented for return_ok().

CookiePolicy.path_return_ok(path, request)

Return False if cookies should not be returned, given cookie path.

See the documentation for domain_return_ok().

In addition to implementing the methods above, implementations of the CookiePolicy interface must also supply the following attributes, indicating which protocols should be used, and how. All of these attributes may be assigned to.


Implement Netscape protocol.


Implement RFC 2965 protocol.


Don't add Cookie2 header to requests (the presence of this header indicates to the server that we understand RFC 2965 cookies).

The most useful way to define a CookiePolicy class is by subclassing from DefaultCookiePolicy and overriding some or all of the methods above. CookiePolicy itself may be used as a 'null policy' to allow setting and receiving any and all cookies (this is unlikely to be useful).

DefaultCookiePolicy 对象

Implements the standard rules for accepting and returning cookies.

Both RFC 2965 and Netscape cookies are covered. RFC 2965 handling is switched off by default.

The easiest way to provide your own policy is to override this class and call its methods in your overridden implementations before adding your own additional checks:

import http.cookiejar
class MyCookiePolicy(http.cookiejar.DefaultCookiePolicy):
    def set_ok(self, cookie, request):
        if not http.cookiejar.DefaultCookiePolicy.set_ok(self, cookie, request):
            return False
        if i_dont_want_to_store_this_cookie(cookie):
            return False
        return True

In addition to the features required to implement the CookiePolicy interface, this class allows you to block and allow domains from setting and receiving cookies. There are also some strictness switches that allow you to tighten up the rather loose Netscape protocol rules a little bit (at the cost of blocking some benign cookies).

A domain blocklist and allowlist is provided (both off by default). Only domains not in the blocklist and present in the allowlist (if the allowlist is active) participate in cookie setting and returning. Use the blocked_domains constructor argument, and blocked_domains() and set_blocked_domains() methods (and the corresponding argument and methods for allowed_domains). If you set an allowlist, you can turn it off again by setting it to None.

Domains in block or allow lists that do not start with a dot must equal the cookie domain to be matched. For example, "" matches a blocklist entry of "", but "" does not. Domains that do start with a dot are matched by more specific domains too. For example, both "" and "" match "" (but "" itself does not). IP addresses are an exception, and must match exactly. For example, if blocked_domains contains "" and ".168.1.2", is blocked, but is not.

DefaultCookiePolicy implements the following additional methods:


Return the sequence of blocked domains (as a tuple).


Set the sequence of blocked domains.


Return whether domain is on the blocklist for setting or receiving cookies.


Return None, or the sequence of allowed domains (as a tuple).


Set the sequence of allowed domains, or None.


Return whether domain is not on the allowlist for setting or receiving cookies.

DefaultCookiePolicy instances have the following attributes, which are all initialised from the constructor arguments of the same name, and which may all be assigned to.


If true, request that the CookieJar instance downgrade RFC 2109 cookies (ie. cookies received in a Set-Cookie header with a version cookie-attribute of 1) to Netscape cookies by setting the version attribute of the Cookie instance to 0. The default value is None, in which case RFC 2109 cookies are downgraded if and only if RFC 2965 handling is turned off. Therefore, RFC 2109 cookies are downgraded by default.

General strictness switches:


Don't allow sites to set two-component domains with country-code top-level domains like,, This is far from perfect and isn't guaranteed to work!

RFC 2965 protocol strictness switches:


Follow RFC 2965 rules on unverifiable transactions (usually, an unverifiable transaction is one resulting from a redirect or a request for an image hosted on another site). If this is false, cookies are never blocked on the basis of verifiability

Netscape protocol strictness switches:


Apply RFC 2965 rules on unverifiable transactions even to Netscape cookies.


Flags indicating how strict to be with domain-matching rules for Netscape cookies. See below for acceptable values.


Ignore cookies in Set-Cookie: headers that have names starting with '$'.


Don't allow setting cookies whose path doesn't path-match request URI.

strict_ns_domain is a collection of flags. Its value is constructed by or-ing together (for example, DomainStrictNoDots|DomainStrictNonDomain means both flags are set).


When setting cookies, the 'host prefix' must not contain a dot (eg. can't set a cookie for, because contains a dot).


Cookies that did not explicitly specify a domain cookie-attribute can only be returned to a domain equal to the domain that set the cookie (eg. won't be returned cookies from that had no domain cookie-attribute).


When setting cookies, require a full RFC 2965 domain-match.

The following attributes are provided for convenience, and are the most useful combinations of the above flags:


Equivalent to 0 (ie. all of the above Netscape domain strictness flags switched off).


Equivalent to DomainStrictNoDots|DomainStrictNonDomain.


The first example shows the most common usage of http.cookiejar:

import http.cookiejar, urllib.request
cj = http.cookiejar.CookieJar()
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(urllib.request.HTTPCookieProcessor(cj))
r ="")

This example illustrates how to open a URL using your Netscape, Mozilla, or Lynx cookies (assumes Unix/Netscape convention for location of the cookies file):

import os, http.cookiejar, urllib.request
cj = http.cookiejar.MozillaCookieJar()
cj.load(os.path.join(os.path.expanduser("~"), ".netscape", "cookies.txt"))
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(urllib.request.HTTPCookieProcessor(cj))
r ="")

The next example illustrates the use of DefaultCookiePolicy. Turn on RFC 2965 cookies, be more strict about domains when setting and returning Netscape cookies, and block some domains from setting cookies or having them returned:

import urllib.request
from http.cookiejar import CookieJar, DefaultCookiePolicy
policy = DefaultCookiePolicy(
    rfc2965=True, strict_ns_domain=Policy.DomainStrict,
    blocked_domains=["", ""])
cj = CookieJar(policy)
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(urllib.request.HTTPCookieProcessor(cj))
r ="")